Tuesday, May 4, 2010


A laparoscopic robotic surgery machine

The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots.[3] There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots, but there is general agreement among experts and the public that robots tend to do some or all of the following: move around, operate a mechanical limb, sense and manipulate their environment, and exhibit intelligent behavior, especially behavior which mimics humans or other animals.

There is conflict about whether the term can be applied to remotely operated devices, as the most common usage implies, or solely to devices which are controlled by their software without human intervention. In South Africa, robot is an informal and commonly used term for a set of traffic lights.

Stories of artificial helpers and companions and attempts to create them have a long history but fully autonomous machines only appeared in the 20th century. The first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. Today, commercial and industrial robots are in widespread use performing jobs more cheaply or with greater accuracy and reliability than humans. They are also employed for jobs which are too dirty, dangerous or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly and packing, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, and mass production of consumer and industrial goods.[4]

It is difficult to compare numbers of robots in different countries, since there are different definitions of what a "robot" is. The International Organization for Standardization gives a definition of robot in ISO 8373: "an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications."[5] This definition is used by the International Federation of Robotics, the European Robotics Research Network (EURON), and many national standards committees.[6]

The Robotics Institute of America (RIA) uses a broader definition: a robot is a "re-programmable multi-functional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks."[7] The RIA subdivides robots into four classes: devices that manipulate objects with manual control, automated devices that manipulate objects with predetermined cycles, programmable and servo-controlled robots with continuous point-to-point trajectories, and robots of this last type which also acquire information from the environment and move intelligently in response.

There is no one definition of robot which satisfies everyone, and many people have their own.[8] For example, Joseph Engelberger, a pioneer in industrial robotics, once remarked: "I can't define a robot, but I know one when I see one."[9] According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, a robot is "any automatically operated machine that replaces human effort, though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in a humanlike manner".[10] Merriam-Webster describes a robot as a "machine that looks like a human being and performs various complex acts (as walking or talking) of a human being", or a "device that automatically performs complicated often repetitive tasks", or a "mechanism guided by automatic controls".[11]

Modern robots are usually used in tightly controlled environments such as on assembly lines because they have difficulty responding to unexpected interference. Because of this, most humans rarely encounter robots. However, domestic robots for cleaning and maintenance are increasingly common in and around homes in developed countries, particularly in Japan. Robots can also be found in the miltary

taken from here

Monday, March 8, 2010

Literature Dictionaries

Denotative Meaning

•Denotative Meaning is the meaning of an symbol that is shared by a group of people. •If you say the word, "dog," most English speakers will point to the same type of animal. •Denotative meaning is what makes symbols work for communication

The denotative meaning of a word
is its actual meaning, with no spin on it intended to persuade •
For example,
the actual meaning of the word "propaganda" is "plan for the propagation of a doctrine or of a system of principles." •There's no implication here that such a doctrine or system is either good or bad.

•The word "proof." Its denotative meaning is "evidence that compels acceptance by the mind." •Please note that in this definition, there's still room for doubt in whatever it is that the evidence is supposed to support.

Conotative meaning

•Connotative Meaning is the meaning of a symbol that is personal to an individual and not shared.


of the word “Propaganda” had been used by the Nazis, "propaganda" is now given its connotative meaning by most people, rather than the denotative. •So it now suggests lies, exploitation, concealment of truth, and other pejorative characteristics or purposes.

The word “proof”.

people generally react to the word not in denotative meaning.•To such people, "proof" means certainty, no room for disagreement, case closed. •
And so when someone
tells them that something has been proved, they tend to accept the statement uncritically and proceed to shut down their thinking mechanism on the subject involved. From that point on, it's a piece of cake to manipulate them.

Tuesday, March 2, 2010


There are 5 values which leave a mark of a very distinctive person.

1. Determination
2. Readiness
3. Willingness
4. Acceptance
5. Sense of Belonging

To be a worthy person these are the values which make a person scores distinction in his or her life!

Value 1: Determination...

How we build strength in self to not U-turn with every setback (obstacle) external span. This strength built up with Value 2: Readiness...

Value 2: Readiness...

Tackles obstacle need accurate readiness from mind and physical. This readiness will arouse sense to know, investigate and understanding of each obstacle undergone so that solutions successfully shaped. Nevertheless to form solutions are siding with we need Value 3: Willingness...

Value 3: Willingness...

Solutions for each obstacle having value of sacrifice which need we go through with accept and prepared. When we prepared to meet and know whatever necessary sacrifice to achieve solutions for obstacle undergone then Value 4: Acceptance plays important role.

Value 4 : Acceptance...

Acceptance on things that must sacrifice to seek solutions on obstacle faced would facilitate mind and physical we form readiness facing obstacle faced. To get state as such we must aware of where us be and what we want so that Value 5: Sense of Belonging can be shaped in ourselves..

Value 5: Sense of Belonging...

Form value own and owned will make mind and become physical stronger and steady. This Value will be formed when we can make Value 1 until Value 4. This process will reinforce ourselves to get support and further build network in life which comprises from friend and family member. This Value also would put us in safe zone for us tackles obstacle undergone.

After we control all this value, thus we can form value distinction in ourselves.......

So..mind pat, ask heart where our will and desire...

Saturday, February 20, 2010

back to school..

now i will come back to school...
my homework...
oh no...
its make me crazy when i think about this....

back to school..



Oh no!!
Its so dificult..
How can i do??
How can i understand it??
Its make me dizzy..
Chemistry's homework are so many to do..
I don't understand how to do my chemistry's homework..

taken from here

Wednesday, February 10, 2010


1.Daily Log
-have done@plan to do.

-personal thoughts.

-give personal comment.